Towards cognitivism. Well. There's memory and there are semantic networks.
First is by reason of shortcomings in mind, like the recency/latency effect (Short-Term).
Second is by reason of patterns used as landmark of utility (Long-Term).
Recall without recognition is patternless, therefore associative (directed by reward).
Unless it is also governed by (cultural inherited) expectations (classical conditioning).
Patterns are important in memory and not simply learned by association. Because there are prototypes (and exceptions).
This is the case of semantic networks. That is basically the reason of the shift to cognitivism. Also the overriding that goes along this.
In other words: because we are limited at the one hand, and more intelligent at the other hand we use our mind by more than association and reinforcement.